Principal Government Officials
- King, Prime Minister, Custodian of the Two Holy Mosques: King Salman bin Abd al-Aziz Al Saud.
- Crown Prince of Saudi Arabia, First Deputy Prime Minister, Minister of Defense: Prince Mohammad bin Salman Al Saud.
- Minister of Foreign Affairs: Adel al-Jubeir.
Type: Monarchy with Council of Ministers and Consultative Council.
Unification: September 23, 1932.
Constitution: The Holy Qur'an (governed according to Islamic Law), Shari'a, and the Basic Law.
Branches: Executive--King (chief of state and head of government; rules under the title Custodian of the Two Holy Mosques). Legislative--a Consultative Council with advisory powers was formed September 1993. Judicial--Supreme Council of Justice, Islamic Courts of First Instance and Appeals.
Administrative divisions: 13 provinces.
Political parties: None.
Area: 1,960,582 million sq. km. (784,233 sq. mi.), slightly more than one-fifth the size of the continental United States.
- RiyadhCAPITAL (4,838,195 million 2017).
- Makkah (4,631,692 million 2017).
- Madinah (1,396,483 million 2017).
- Eastern Province (3,220,410 million 2017).
- Asir (1,765,885 million 2017).
- Qassim (1,049,920 million 2017).
- Jizan (1,220,409 million 2017).
- Tabuk (728,124 thousand 2017).
- Ha'il (552,980 thousand 2017).
- Najran (445,372 thousand 2017).
- Al-Jawf (390,566 thousand 2017).
- Al-Bahah (391,706 thousand 2017).
- Northern Borders (299,440 thousand 2017).
Climate: Arid, with great extremes of temperature in the interior; humidity and temperature are both high along the coast.
GDP 2017: $756 billion.
Annual growth rate 2017: 24.2%.
Per capita GDP 2017: $39,125.
Natural resources: Gold, silver, copper, zinc, chromium, manganese, tungsten, cement, tin, aluminum, iron, gypsum, silicate, sulfur, salt, tantalum and niobium.
Agriculture: Products--dates, grains, livestock, vegetables. Arable land--1.76%.
Industry: petroleum, petrochemicals, cement, fertilizer, light industry.
Nationality: Noun--Saudi(s). Adjective--Saudi Arabian or Saudi.
Population: 33 million 2018 (20.7 million Saudis, 12.6 million foreign nationals).
Annual growth rate: (2008 est.): 1.9%.
Ethnic groups: Arab (90% of native pop.), Afro-Asian (10% of native pop.).
Language: Arabic (official).
Education: Literacy--total 78.8% (male 84.7%, female 70.8%).
Health: Infant mortality rate (2008 est.)--12.01 deaths/1,000 live births. Life expectancy--male 74 years, female 78 years.
Work force: Saudi Employees for the first quarter of the year (2018) 3.150.49 million, non-Saudi employees for the first quarter of 2018 (10.183.104 million).